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Fata Morgana

I was reading an 1875 edition of The Open Polar Sea, a book about an 1860 expedition toward the North Pole. The author mentions certain illusions that reminded him of cities in the ice:
"The atmosphere had a rare softness, and throughout almost the entire day there was visible a most remarkable mirage or refraction, — an event of very frequent occurrence during the calm days of the Arctic summer. The entire horizon was lifting and doubling itself continually, and objects at a great distance beyond it rose as if by strange enchantment and stood suspended in the air, changing shape with each changing moment. Distant icebergs and floating ice-fields, and coast-lines and mountains were thus brought into view ; sometimes preserving for a moment their natural shapes, then widening or lengthening, rising and falling as the wind fluttered or fell calm over the sea. The changes were as various as the dissolving images of a kaleidoscope, and every form of which the imagination could conce…

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